Barely a few months after the launch of the last unemployment insurance reform, last December, Emmanuel Macron was already launching the idea of conducting a new one. Announced during the campaign, the president again mentioned this project during his July 14 interview. The goal of this new reform: that unemployment insurance be “stricter when too many jobs are unfilled, more generous when unemployment is high”. A device inspired by the Canadian model. It provides that the duration and amount of compensation depend on the unemployment rate in each employment area.
The reform is part of the government’s objective of achieving full employment (5% unemployment compared to 7.3% today) in 2027. It takes into account the fact that many jobs are not filled today. today. According to a survey by the Banque de France, 58% of companies faced recruitment difficulties in July, an increase of 10 points compared to last year. On July 27, the Minister for Labour, Employment and Integration, Olivier Dussopt, assured that in the current situation, it is “normal to encourage the resumption of activity”.
Better wages and working conditions
To launch the reform, the government is planning a “consultation” in the fall with the social partners, but for the moment, the project is struggling to convince the unions. “We still want to put pressure on the unemployed to accept any jobannoys Denis Gravouil, responsible for employment and unemployment issues at the CGT. It is wrong to believe that job seekers remain unemployed until the end of their allowances. Most find work before having exhausted their rights. Not to mention that 60% of the unemployed do not receive any compensation, so the problem lies elsewhere. »
For the unions, solving the recruitment difficulties of certain companies must above all go through an increase in wages and the improvement of working conditions. “Our society is changing.analyzes François Hommeril, president of the CFE-CGC. From now on, people who have the appropriate training and who want to work are not ready to do so at any price, and that is what we have to answer. »
The future reform is all the more unwelcome as the previous one has not yet proven itself. Voted in 2019, it only took effect in December 2021 due to the Covid and the appeals of the unions before the Council of State. It introduced stricter compensation rules. But its few months of application have not yet made it possible to assess its impact.
60% of French people in favor
“To carry out a reform, there is a lack of real diagnostic work, says Bruno Coquet, unemployment insurance expert affiliated with the OFCE (French Observatory of Economic Conditions). The government wants to give us the solution, but it has not clearly explained the problem, even if reducing spending is a bit of the unspoken thing. »
The economist does not reject the idea of linking unemployment insurance rights to the economic situation. “That might be a good idea. But it depends on how it’s done. The Canadian model is a gas plant and I have not yet seen studies showing its effectiveness. For me, that of the United States, which varies only the duration of compensation according to the local or national unemployment rate, is more interesting. The rules are simpler, long established, and proven to work. »
The government’s proposal, on the other hand, seems rather well received by the French. According to a survey carried out by Elabe for The echoes and the Institut Montaigne, 60% of French people say they “favorable” to the modulation of compensation according to the economic situation, and 53% are “favorable” to a differentiation of compensation according to the regions.
Unemployment continues to fall for seven years
The unemployment rate in France fell by 1.4 points in three years to stand at 7.3% in the first quarter of 2022. Since 2015, it has continued to fall: the unemployment rate was, at the time, 10.5 %.
Just over 750,000 salaried jobs were created in France between 2021 and 2022, even if, for the past year, the number of jobs created each quarter has slowed down. In the first quarter of 2022, payroll employment increased by 0.3% compared to 1.22% in the same period the previous year.
In July 2022, according to the Banque de France business survey, 61% of companies in the construction and services sector had problems recruiting. In industry, this is the case for 49% of companies.